How to Install Linux VM on VirtualBox

How to Install Linux VM on VirtualBox

Virtualization has become an integral part of modern computing, allowing users to run multiple operating systems on a single physical machine. VirtualBox, a powerful and open-source virtualization software, provides a user-friendly platform for creating and managing virtual machines (VMs). In this guide, we'll walk you through the process of installing a Linux VM on VirtualBox, step by step.

  1. Download and Install VirtualBox:
    The first step is to download and install VirtualBox on your host machine. Head over to the official VirtualBox website ( and download the version compatible with your operating system. Follow the installation instructions provided by the setup wizard to complete the installation.

  2. Download a Linux Distribution ISO:
    Before creating a VM, you'll need a Linux distribution ISO file. Visit the official website of your preferred Linux distribution (e.g., Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian) and download the ISO file. Save it to a location on your host machine where you can easily access it.

  3. Open VirtualBox and Create a New VM:

    • Launch VirtualBox and click on the "New" button in the toolbar.
    • Enter a name for your VM and select "Linux" as the type and the version that matches your chosen distribution.
    • Set the memory (RAM) size for your VM. It's recommended to allocate at least 1 GB for a smooth experience.
  4. Create a Virtual Hard Disk:

    • In the VM creation wizard, choose "Create a virtual hard disk now" and click "Create."
    • Select the hard disk file type. The default VDI (VirtualBox Disk Image) is suitable for most users.
    • Choose between a dynamically allocated or fixed-size hard disk. The former consumes only as much space as the VM uses, while the latter allocates the entire specified size upfront.
  5. Allocate Hard Disk Space:

    • Specify the size of the virtual hard disk. A minimum of 25 GB is recommended for a standard Linux installation.
    • Click "Create" to finalize the virtual hard disk setup.
  6. Mount Linux ISO and Install the OS:

    • With the VM selected, click "Settings," then go to the "System" tab.
    • In the "Boot Order" section, move "Optical" to the top and select "Live CD/DVD."
    • Go to the "Storage" tab, select "Empty" under "Controller: IDE," and click on the disk icon next to "Optical Drive."
    • Choose "Choose a disk file" and select the Linux ISO you downloaded.
    • Start the VM, and the Linux installation process should begin.
  7. Follow the Linux Installation Wizard:

    • Follow the on-screen instructions to install Linux on the virtual machine.
    • Set your language, time zone, keyboard layout, and create a user account.
  8. Complete the Installation:

    • Once the installation is complete, eject the virtual disk from the VM.
    • Restart the VM, and you should now have a fully functional Linux operating system running on VirtualBox.
  9. Install VirtualBox Guest Additions:

    • In the running VM, go to the "Devices" menu in the VirtualBox window and select "Insert Guest Additions CD image."
    • Open a terminal in the VM and run the installation script from the mounted CD: sudo sh /media/cdrom/
    • Reboot the VM for the changes to take effect.

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